编程语言分类

一、语言类型

  • 机器语言:0和1的二进制代码

如:0000,0001,000000000001

  • 汇编语言:指令采用了英文缩写的标识符,更容易识别和记忆

如:mov edx, len

  • 高级语言:去掉了与具体操作有关但与完成工作无关的细节

如:printlnf(“hello world”)

二、高级语言分类

1.编译型:在程序执行之前,将程序源代码“翻译”成目标代码(机器语言),之后可以脱离其语言环境独立执行(编译后生成的可执行文件)。

优缺点:编译后程序运行时不需要重新翻译,直接运行,程序执行效率高,依赖编译器,跨平台性差些。如Go、C、C++、Delphi等

 

2.解释型:应用程序源代码一边由相应语言的解释器“翻译”成目标代码(机器语言),一边执行,效率比较低。

如Python、PHP、Ruby等语言。

注:Java既不属于传统的编译型语言,也不属于解释型语言,Java是先编译成“.class”字节码文件,然后再利用JVM虚拟机进行解释执行的,所以Java即可以说成编译型,也可以说成解释型。

雅思每日任务

一、个人

1.口语

  • 每天背三句
  • [背词+听+影子跟读]P1P2P3素材
  • P1、P2写答案并录音练习
  • [背+复述+模仿]P3的100道题目及重点词句
  • 复习课件
  • 8句话扩展每天练一遍

2.阅读

  • 背诵538同义替换 30分钟
  • 背诵阅读14天同替 20分钟
  • 做一套题
  • 复习课件,背诵对应积累的词

3.听力

  • 语料库50分钟(看三遍):95%正确率  (p0)
  • 点听:用c8或者c14  (p1)
  • 复听:用c8或者c14 (p2)
  • 做一套题:一步一步练,先练c11 12 13 15 的s1和s4,后练习s2、s3,分析题干和点复听。 (p2)
  • 考前一周集训:地图训练  (p1)
  • 背诵179同义替换 20分钟 (p2)
  • 复习课件

4.写作

  • 写一篇作文
  • 复习课件

二、官方

1.听力

  • 复习课件——最为重要——方法论一定要超级熟练背诵(中文+英文);8句话扩展每天练一遍
  • 每天背三句
  • P1P2P3素材背词、反复听、努力且不纠结地进行影子跟读
  • 评分标准解析视频课+做笔记视频课
  • 阅读文章练习
  • 准备并练习答题
    • P1不要背答案,自己练习录音回答,听自己的回答、改错、提升
    • P2不要背答案,可以直接录音回答,也可以把自己的答案写下来之后,再练习回答
    • P3练习初期可以背/复述/模仿我的回答,充分模仿我的回答(词汇、句型、思路)

 

三、资料

1.口语每天推8句话

  • what I love the most about my neighborhood is all the good amenities there
  • for me, the best way to relax is just hanging out with my parents
  • my primary school was so close to our house that I would just walk to school every day
  • I should definitely do more to protect the environment
  • we see advertisements everywhere
  • the house that I grew up in was kind of big
  • sitting in the back of the car appeals to me more cuz I can do my own thing back there
  • I haven’t planted any flowers, but I’ve kept some

从这八句话开始推,每天推一遍,每一天推出来的最好不一样

雅思口语八

一、part3无观点怎么办

注:p3有观点就照着观点进行扩展阐述,没观点千万不要硬想观点,会造成流利度下降,就说第一反应+why,然后进行扩展。

1. Ask the examiner to repeat or clarify the question

2.First reaction+why

3.Focus on what you know

1. Ask the examiner to repeat or clarify the question

  • Sorry, could you say it again?
  • I’m sorry, would you please repeat the question?
  • What do you mean by …?
  • I’m not sure what … means. Could you explain it please?
  • I’m trying to get it right. Are you asking me …?

 

2.First reaction+why

  • That’s a tough/tricky/difficult question.
  • That’s an interesting question.
  • I’m not sure about this.
  • I don’t know much about this.
  • I’ve never thought about it before.
  • Oh, I have thought about it before.
  • I don’t think it’s a big problem at all.
  • I’m not sure if I agree with you.
  • I don’t suppose they should take a gap year after high school.

例子:

  • Why do most people smile in photographs?
  • How can you tell whether a website is reliable or not?
  • What are the consequences if children don’t like to share?
  • Are films a waste of money?

回答示例:

Q: Why do most people smile in photographs?

​Why do most people smile in photographs? ​Um, why do they smile? ​Well…​ Really, do most people smile in photos? Cuz I know some people, including myself, who don’t like to smile while posing for a picture. ​But perhaps…​ ​um…​ ​Yeah, most people do smile, and honestly I’ve never thought about why, because it seems like this is just normal, common and it’s customary for people to do it. ​When someone sees other smile, they will just do the same. not me, but most people are like that.

 

Q:​ How can you tell if a website is reliable or not?

​Oh my god, this is such a hard question, because/cuz I don’t study in this area, and actually, most people don’t know much about this. When we use the internet, we just go to a website, click on some links, hoping that it’s safe. But if it’s not, if it’s dangerous, we wouldn’t know beforehand. So in my opinion, it’s not us, the individuals, that should learn to tell whether a website is reliable or not, It should be the government that regulates the internet.

 

Q: Are films a waste of money?
um.. What kind of question is that? Is anything a waste of money? Are sports useless.. Sports, books, music, buildings, and films are what We’ve had for a long time, and definitely they exist​ for a reason. So, films are undoubtedly not a waste of money. They serve a purpose.

3.Focus on what you know

知道里面的什么说什么

4.重点句型

  • as for …/ in terms of …/ when it comes to …  :关于
  • what I can think of right now is/are …
  • one … that comes to mind is …
  • one … that pops into my mind is …
  • a few things I can think of now are …

5.P3部分

  • P3很重要!
  • 方法论超熟练背诵
  • P3素材大量练习
    • 背词
    • 反复听我的回答
    • 努力进行影子跟读
    • 练习回答(初期以模仿我的回答为主)

6.每天练习

  • 复习课件——最为重要——方法论一定要超级熟练背诵(中文+英文);8句话扩展每天练一遍
  • 每天背三句
  • P1P2P3素材背词、反复听、努力且不纠结地进行影子跟读
  • 评分标准解析视频课+做笔记视频课
  • 阅读文章练习
  • 准备并练习答题
    • P1不要背答案,自己练习录音回答,听自己的回答、改错、提升
    • P2不要背答案,可以直接录音回答,也可以把自己的答案写下来之后,再练习回答
    • P3练习初期可以背/复述/模仿我的回答,充分模仿我的回答(词汇、句型、思路)

 

雅思口语七

一、p2整体

1.p2整体逻辑非常重要:从上到下,逐点回答,单点扩展,不要串点,每个段落第一句是这个段落主题句,能扩展的在段落内部进行充分扩展。实在没得说回顾过去、展望未来,再不行说another one

这些都做到后p2会简单很多。

 

2.你不需要完美,你只需要进步。

 

3.p2练习方法

  • 把这道题的200+个字全部写下来,然后朗读,回答
  • 或者:写关键字,录音,答题 重复n次

二、part3

1.介绍

考试:4-5mins,2 topics

涉及方面:abstract、social、national、international、universal等大众、社会、抽象内容

2.回答方法

有观点:进行充分的扩展(推),不要罗列观点。扩展方法同前面所学,由宽泛到具体(时间、地点、降级、列举等)。

无观点:只要在路上,一定有方向

注:不要直接上来就用个人例子,因为part3是大众化的问题,推的过程中可以用个人例子(偶尔用,别太多)。

三、part3好的句子积累

I do believe there are many ways we can improve our

memory,  and one of them, from what I’ve heard, is learning a foreign

language.

 

四、作业

1.复习课件、背诵方法论部分
2.上课看到的p3题目,写出自己回答,练习张嘴说出回答
3.8句话,每天推一遍
4.每日背三句
5.评分标准解析每三天看一遍,p2做笔记视频课多看多练
6.音频素材,每天大量听和跟读
7.自己根据文章创造part3的问题,看考官可能会出哪些题目,写尽量的多

 

雅思口语六

一、p2第一段开头语

1.如果是名词或者动名词类

第一段:名词?动名词?

  • The … that I’m going to talk about/describe is …
  • I’m going to describe …
  • I’m going to talk about …

例子:

  • The hotel that I’m going to describe is one in Shanghai, which is the best hotel I’ve ever stayed at.
  • I’m going to describe my next-door neighbor, an English teacher at … University.
  • I’m going to talk about drinking coffee, which is a big part of my life.

2.如果是事件或者经历类

问题:

describe a time…
describe an occasion…
describe a situation …
describe a … experience

注:上面的提问都用下面的形式回答。

  • 第一段:事件、经历?
  • A/The time that I’m going to talk about/describe is when …
  • I’m going to describe a/the time when I did sth
  • I’m going to talk about a/the time when I did sth

注:如果是多次发生,描述其中的一次用a,如果是只有一次发生,那么用the。

例子:

  • The time that I’m going to talk about is when I attended my cousin’s wedding ceremony.
  • I’m going to describe the time when I lost my Kindle.
  • I’m going to talk about a time when my dad gave me some valuable advice.

 

如果要重复题目,那么需要给出新鲜信息,不要只是重复。如 问题:describe a time when you got up early

I’m going to describe a time when I got up early.

 

二、p2二三四段开头句

  • 念题+回答
    • How I know this country … well, honestly …
    • What I would like to know about Korea … um …

注:最多念两次,最好念一次

  • 直接开头,回答+扩展
    • I’d like to know more about this country mainly because …
    • The person that went with me was …

 

做笔记非常重要

 

三、tips

1.做笔记非常重要

2.没的说了,考官还让接着说怎么办

  • 回顾过去
  • 展望未来
  • another one???

回顾过去

随便编一个和这个题目有关系(听说的、自己做的、和别人聊的、看到的…)的第一次或上一次的经历。

  • 上一次、第一次
  • 时间、地点、人物、事件、感受
  • 细节、细节、细节
  • 注意过去式
    • Actually/In fact, I … several days ago/a couple of weeks ago …
    • the first/last time I did sth was …
    • I remember (clearly/vividly/distinctly) that …

 

展望未来

展望未来是描述下一次的,一定要具体,要确切的未来,时间要具体,甚至这个事要发生的时间离考试很近。展望未来千万不要虚无缥缈。

  • Speaking of …;  By the way …;  That reminds me …
  • sth is   around the corner / approaching / coming up
  • I’m going to / I will / I plan to / I’m planning to …
  • I believe / I’m sure/I’m convinced that …
  • It’s likely that …
  • Hopefully …
  • I’m looking forward to it / ving
  • I’m pretty excited about it
  • 时间、地点、人物、事件、感受
  • 细节、细节、细节
  • 注意将来时态

问题:

  • describe a time when you waited in line for a long time
  • describe a part of a city or town you enjoy spending time in
  • describe a time when your computer broke down

式例:

well,speaking of this park ..um,since i don’t have anything planned this afternoon,i think i’m just going there again after lunch.my mom will get our lunch ready at 12:00 and then i think i’m going to this park around 1 pm, ideally with a couple of my friends,but if they’re not available,i will go there alone,and take a walk or read a book on one of those benches. i think it’s going to be pretty enjoyable.

四、作业

1.复习课件、背诵方法论部分
2.上课练过的题目,写出自己回答,练习张嘴说出回答
3.8句话,每天推一遍
4.每日背三句
5.评分标准解析每三天看一遍,p2做笔记视频课多看多练
6.音频素材,每天大量听和跟读
7.阅读文章按照要求学习

 

雅思口语五

一、p2

1.p2要奔着两分钟说

2.p2答完不会马上进入p3,会有个rounding off question,rounding off question圆滑过渡问题:一两句话结束,不要扩展。

3.tips

  • 不要纠结“预测”
  • 不要纠结“是否练完”

4.布局谋篇-整体

  • 从上到下
  • 逐点回答
  • 单点扩展
  • 不要串点(尽量)

串点?

like/as I said, like/as I mentioned earlier, like/as I said at the beginning, I actually talked about this just now …)

二、tips

how you know = when you know

三、作业

1.复习课件、背诵方法论部分
2.p2题目,写出自己回答,练习张嘴说出回答
3.8句话,每天推一遍
4.每日背三句
5.评分标准解析每三天看一遍
6.音频素材,每天大量听和跟读
7.阅读文章按照要求学习

总结:写p2,自己开口练;每日背三句;阅读输入;听+跟读。

 

雅思口语四

一、课堂练习

问题:

Describe an art exhibition you have visited

you should say

  • when you visited it
  • where it was
  • what it is like

and explain how you felt about the exhibition

回答:

  • Well, first of all, I have to be completely honest with you. I’m not into art and I haven’t visited any art exhibition, so what I’m going to talk about is actually when I visited a history museum where there was a little bit of art.
  • It was years ago … (具体)I think I was a 5th or 6th grader in primary school,(更具体)and during our first week of that semester, (原因)our school organized a trip to a museum to learn some history, (原因的原因) because a lot of teachers in our school were convinced that history was one of the most important subjects. So yeah, we just went.
  • It is the National Museum that we visited. (具体)It’s situated right in the center of our city, Beijing … pretty close to Tiananmen Square. (更具体)would say it’s only 200 meters away, (结果)so anybody that visits the Tiananmen Square can also walk to the National Museum easily (结果的结果)and learn a thing or two about our past.
  • What it was like … Well, there were different sections about all of our dynasties … (具体)the most famous ones like the Han Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty, and the Ming and Qing. (更具体)I remember while we were being shown around the Tang section, there were a number of vases, pots and other artifacts that were pretty beautiful. They were definitely works of art. (更更具体)Especially a tall vase with an elaborate pattern of a dragon and a phoenix … That was very pleasing to the eye.

 

二、原因和结果

原因:

  • because
  • cuz
  • because of …
  • since
  • the reason is (that) …

 

结果:

  • and
  • so
  • as a result/consequence
  • because of that
  • therefore

原因不要给太多,少给,给了的原因也别太长。可以给结果,结果比较好“推”。

整体来说口语还是宽泛-具体、时间、地点、…… 、更好推,可以穿插少量的原因和结果。

三、tips

雅思口语考试,越扩展,越简单

四、作业

1.p2题目,一句话一句话写出回答
2.第二节课的八句话,每天练一遍
3.每日背三句
4.评分标准每三天看一遍
5.影子跟读
不会答也要答,需要练在无助的情况下也能答的能力。

 

雅思听力八

一、笔记

staircase:楼梯
statue:雕像
staff:员工
stuff:东西、原料

fabric织物、布料 = textile纺织品、纺织业

interior:内部
exterior:外部
over budget:超过预算
within budget:在预算之内
postpone = put off 推迟
postpone != delay

possibility:可能性

二、地图题

1.概述

  • 一共只有3-7道题
  • Section 2会出现
  • 地图填空题:基本遇不到,机试偶尔遇到,笔试1%概率会遇到。是按顺序的,听到地点就填,根本不用判断方位,非常简单。
  • 地图搭配题:根据选项进行选择

2.做题方法

  • 找出地图中的entrance,starting point(不一定是真实入口)
  • 画出图中的方位NSWE
    注意:静态左右、动态左右
  • 注意大小、形状、周围路标
  • 注意图中词组,路标。(心中大声朗读)必须记住所有英文
  • 按顺序朗读ABCD并标记出来
circle circular  :圆、圆的
triangle triangular:三角形、三角形的
rectangle rectangular :长方形、长方形的
square:正方形
oval:椭圆形
intersection:交叉路口
junction:交叉路口

 

三、课堂练习

C11 Test4 section2 p83
17.H 错了 F
18.H
19.B 错了 C
20.A 错了 B

C11 Test2 section2 p35
11.C 错了 A
12.B
13.D
14.B
15.B E
16.C
17.E 错了 G
18.D
19.B
20.F
11-16,1遍对4错2,2遍对5错1
17-20:对3错1

 

四、考察语法现象

过去、现在、将来

过去:
Last
Past
previous

起初:
First
Originally
initially

wanted to:本来想
want to:想

Used to do:过去常常、现在不这样了

现在:
Now nowadays
at present
at the moment
Be doing
Current
currently

将来:
Future
Be about to do
Plan to
Intend to
Hope
Wish
Consider      considering  :考虑怎么样,意思现在还没有
Possible       possibility
Be going to do
next
will

五、作业

地图训练 考前一周集训

  • C8 t2 t4(s1还ok其他的痛苦万分)
  • C11 t1 t4
  • C7 t4
  • C12 13 14 15 16随意
8或14都ok
选择配对:做完后主要需要分析否定同替
选择配对主要在s2、s3。
地图在s2。
一步一步练,先练c11 12 13 15 的s1和s4,分析题干和点复听。
除了8禁止用其他10以下的,没必要再做其他题,就11 12 13,额外加一本的话就是15
基础弱:可以语料库 + 做剑9 + 做剑14的点听复听

 

雅思听力七

一、笔记

motivate:激励
priceless:无价的
valueless:一文不值的
worthless:一文不值的
cost a fortune = expensive

documentary:纪录片
assignment:n 分配、任务

visuals = graphs、charts、tables
publicity:推广
fascinating迷人的 = interesting
permit:许可证
permission:允许
wander around:徘徊

majority大部分 = most

二、课堂练习

C12 Test6 section3 p34
26.F E 选择E
27.G C 选择G
28.C D 选择D
29.E G 选择C
30.A A
自己选对2个,选择填空对3个(最后一个还是参考的听到的)

 

C12 Test7 section3 p56
21.A C
22.E
23.E 错了 H
24.D 错了 B
25.A 2G 错了 A
26.F
27.A
28.A 错了 C
29.A 错了 B
30.B
21-26:1遍对3错3,2遍对3错3
27-30:1遍对2错2

C11 Test3 section1 p57
1.A 错了 B
2.A 错了 C
3.C 错了 B
4.A
5.A 错了 C
6.C 错了 A
7.birds
8.flowers
9.marshroom 错了 mushrooms
10.suit 错了 river
1遍对3错7

C11 Test1 section1 p10
1.Charlcoen 错了 Charlton
2.150 错了 115
3.cash
4.parking
5.music
6.entry
7.stage
8.condition 错了 code
9.错了 floors
10.decration 错了 decorations
1次对5错5,拼写错1,数字错1,2个没听懂,1个单词没记熟

三、作业

原来的作业:
C11 Test3 section2 section3 p59-62  (较难,对的会稍少)

 

本次作业:
1.语料库
2.c14 test3 test4

雅思听力六

一、每日任务

1.语料库50分钟(看三遍)
2.点听
3.179统一替换
3.阅读同义替换538 30分钟
4.阅读1篇
5.每日背三句
注:做完题一定要写同替分析

二、同义替换

Paraphrase(同义替换)原则:

1.原文原词多数不是正确答案
2.正确答案通过同义词,反义词,同根词体现
3.两个选项并列出现,都不能选。
如:danger 同义词:dangerous、risky 反义词:not safe 同根词:hazard、peril

三种同义替换类型

  • 1.举例说明(上义词,下义词)
比如选项是media,原文是magazine,magazine是media的下义词。
  • 2.解释说明(下定义)
类似猜谜语(一种东西可以载人从一楼到其他楼,而不用爬楼梯 – 电梯)
  • 3.总结概括(具体特征)
选项中有information、detail,十有八九是答案,会换成具体的细节。如出国留学材料的information可能是介绍信、成绩单blabla

三、matching(配对题)

考的是同义替换
听到一个词、词组选一个答案

直接选:写字慢、在国际学校
记笔记:把听到的记下来,最后再统一选

1.审题:背单词
2.听音:练语料库、点听
3.匹配出同义替换:思路

四、课堂练习

C12 Test6 section2 p32
16.D 错了 F
17.C 错了 B
18.E
19.G
20.B 错了 C

五、笔记

What can i do about … :我的xxx怎么办呢
People who matter to them = important to them
verbal ability = communication

选择题中,选项中有information,则90%是答案。

What for? 干啥呀?目的是啥呀?(挑衅用语。)

so many different things to do = variety of work
move you up = give you more responsibility = promotion
footwear = shoes
safety hazard:安全隐患
reserve:预定 = We have a limited number of places(名额)
out of bounds:越界

fitness training:健身训练
fitness club:健身俱乐部
keep fit:身材匀称
gym:健身房

straight away:立刻、马上
right now
at once

treatment:治疗、对待

 

premiere:首映式

mayor:市长

六、作业

背179

C11 Test4 section2 p82

11.E
12. 错了 D
13.G
14.B
15.C
16. 错了 A
做同替分析
再用记笔记做一遍
做题总结,谁等于谁,179

1遍对4错2

C13 Test3 section2 p55 p56 section3 p58

11.E 错了 F
12.G 2D
13.A
14.B
15.B 错了 C
16.C 错了 G
17.B
18.E A 错了 C
19.D
20.B
11-16:一遍对2错4 2遍对3错3 有个单词不认识,认识后能对5错1
17-20:1遍对3错1,2遍对3错1

C13 Test3 section3 p58

21.C 2A 错了 C
22.B 错了 A
23.B 错了 A
24.B 2C 错了 B
25.B 错了 C
26.H 错了 F
27.A 错了 H
28.E 错了 D
29.H 错了 A
30.E 2G 错了 E
21-24,1遍对2错2,2遍对0错4
25-30,1遍对1错5,2遍对0错6

1.C13 Test3 section1、2、3、4

2.C12 Test8 section1、2、3、4
不用写同替分析